Maria Rosa Vilma Tuazon Santos-Recto (born Maria Rosa Vilma Tuazon Santos November 3, 1953 in Bamban, Tarlac), commonly known as Vilma Santos-Recto or Ate Vi is a Filipino actress and box office queen for almost four decades. One of the original Philippine movie queens, she rose up to become the versatile actress that has been given the fitting title of “Star for All Seasons” because of her capacity to adapt to the changing mores and values of the Filipino woman, giving a face to their plight and struggles, albeit in success both critically and box-office wise in some of Philippine cinema’s classics such as Trudis Liit (1963), Lipad, Darna, Lipad (1973), Burlesk Queen (1977), Relasyon (1982), Sister Stella L. (1984), Alyas Baby Tsina (1984), Pahiram ng Isang Umaga (1989), Dahil Mahal Kita: The Dolzura Cortez Story (1993), Anak (2000) and Dekada ’70 (2002). She is currently the governor of Batangas, Philippines (2012)(Wikipedia).

For More Informations, Visit: Vilma Santos-Recto's Official Web-site

Friday, July 12, 2013

SISTER STELLA L (1984) (Repost)

"Ako ay kristyano, higit sa lahat ako ay tao. Kung nandito lamang si kristo sa ibabaw ng lupa alam kong kasama ko siya sa pakikipaglaban.” - Sister Stella Legaspi


Basic Information: Direction: Mike De Leon; Adapted screenplay: Jose Almojuela, Mike De Leon, Jose F. Lacaba; Original screenplay: Ricardo Lee;  Cast: Vilma Santos, Jay Ilagan, Gina Alajar, Laurice Guillen, Tony Santos Sr., Anita Linda, Liza Lorena, Ruben Rustia, Eddie Infante, Adul de Leon, Rody Vera, Pen Medina; Original Music: Ding Achacoso; Cinematography: Rody Lacap; Editing: Jess Navarro; Production Design: Cesar Hernando; Sound: Ramon Reyes; Soundtracks: Pat Castillo, "Sangandaan", "Aling Pag-ibig Pa?"

Plot Description: Sister Stella L is the award-winning masterpiece by Mike de Leon. Its about a nun, Sister Stella Legaspi (played by Vilma Santos), who becomes involved in labor strikes after learning about the governments neglect of the poor and the working class. Her sworn duty to fight for the poor and the oppressed turns personal when her journalist friend Nick Fajardo (played by Jay Ilagan) is tortured and the union leader Dencio (played by Tony Santos) is kidnapped and killed. What follows is her eye-opening and tear-jerking battle against cruelty and injustice. This film is one of the most memorable roles for Vilma Santos. She is excellent in her portrayal of the resilient nun. - Regal Films (READ MORE)

A nun who acts as a counselor in a home for unwed mother undergoes political awakening when her friend and namesake belonging to the same congregation as hers inspires her to get involved in the struggle for justice and freedom of striking workers in a cooking oil company. - Database of Philippine Movies

Sister Stella L. is the award-winning masterpiece by Mike De Leon. It's about a nun, Sister Stella Legaspi, who becomes involved in labor strikes after learning about the government's neglect of the poor and the working class. Her sworn duty to fight for the poor and the oppressed turns personal when her journalist friend Nick Fajardo is tortured and the union leader Dencio is kidnapped and killed. What follows is her eye-opening and the tear-jerking battle against cruelty and injustice. The film broke censorship barriers back in 1984, during the final years of the US-backed Marcos dictatorship, for its realistic portrayal of labor struggles, and extrajudicial killings, hauntingly mirroring the reality of Philippine society today under Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. - Filipinas for the Rights and Empowerment

"...The peaceful life of a young nun is transformed when she becomes involved in helping the cause of a group of factory workers in a nearby town. She asks to be transferred to the town where she dedicates herself to working against unjust labour practices in the factory..." - British Film Institute (READ MORE)

Film Achievements: Philippines’ entry to 1985 Venice International Film Festival; FAMAS Best Supporting Actor - Tony Santos Sr.; Star Awards Movie of the Year - Regal Films; Film Academy of the Philippines: Best Picture - Regal Films, Best Director - Mike De Leon; Gawad Urian: Best Picture - Regal Films, Best Actress - Vilma Santos, Best Actor - Jay Ilagan, Best Direction - Mike De Leon, Best Editing - Jess Navarro, Best Music - Ding Achacoso, Best Screenplay - Jose F. Lacaba, Jose Almojuela, Mike De Leon, Best Sound - Ramon Reyes, Best Supporting Actor - Tony Santos Sr., Best Supporting Actress - Laurice Guillen

Other Film Achievements FAMAS Best Actress nomination - Vilma Santos; Film Academy of the Philippines Best Actress nomination - Vilma Santos; Gawad Urian: Best Cinematography nomination - Rody Lacap, Best Production Design nomination - Cesar Hernando, Best Supporting Actress nomination - Gina Alajar, Best Supporting Actress nomination - Liza Lorena; Sister Stella L. was one of 25 Filipino films shown in New York from July 31 to August 1999, organized by the Film Society of Lincoln Center.

Film Reviews: Hindi kami nakakilos sa aming inuupuan matapos panoorin ang “Sister Stella L”. Para kaming sinampal, tinamaan ng kidlat right between the eyes. Masyado kaming naapektuhan. Gusto naming sumigaw. Talagang gagalitin ka ng pelikula. Kay raming eksena ang talagang titiim ang bagang mo. Manggigigil ka, magngingitngit ka. At pahahangain ka. Gusto mong sigawan ng bravo, yakapin at suubin ng papuri ang mga gumawa nito. Si Mike de Leon na siyang direktor. Si Lily Monteverde na naglakas loob na I-produce ito. Ang scripwriters, ang mga artista, at lahat na ng kaugnay sa pelikula. Alam mong itinataya nila ang kanilang kaligtasan sa paggawa ng ganitong uri ng pelikula. At bilang manunulat, naroon ang hangarin mo upang tulungan ang pelikulang ito na mapanood ng lalong nakararaming mga pilipino nang walang putol! Ang “Sister Stella L” ay kasaysayan ng isang madre, ng isang Pilipino, at ang pagkakamulat ng kanyang mga mata sa mga kaapihang sosyal na nagaganap sa kanyang paligid. Sa pagsisimula ng istorya as siyam na taon nang naglilingkod sa kumbento ng Caritas si Sister Stella Legaspi (Vilma Santos).

Incroci - "...With the assassination of #NinoyAquino the following year, De Leon conceived of a more critical movie about the Philippines under the dictatorship. He got José “Pete” Lacaba to write the script with José Almohuela about the growing activism of religious sisters on the union front. And since Regal Films boss Lily Monteverde was looking for another project to cash in on the box-office magic of Vilma Santos, the proper financing and casting were obtained. The result was the classic “Sister Stella L,” released in 1984. Among many superlatives of the historic movie was its original sound track that included two key songs written by Lacaba and musical director Ding Achacoso, “Aling Pag-ibig Pa?” and “Sangandaan,” which means “crossroads.” When the movie was accepted to the main competition of Venice in 1985, its title was changed to "Incroci," Italian for "crossroads..." - Lito B. Zulueta, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 18 September 2017 (READ MORE)

On Martial Law - "...What I remember the most are the human rights abuses. In my line of work, I needed a curfew pass because shootings would often wrap up late at night. Martial law was no joke! When I did Mike de Leon’s “Sister Stella L.” in 1984, I didn’t know much about our society. But when I became a public servant, nakita ko na ang realidad ng buhay! Panoorin po ninyo ang movie at malalaman ninyo na ang problema noon sa lipunan ay siya pa ring problema at sitwasyon natin sa ngayon..." - Hon. Rep. Vilma Santos-Recto, Reported by Bayani San Diego Jr., Philippine Daily Inquirer, 20 September 2017 (READ MORE)

Relevant Films for Millenials - "...For the millennial generation who want to learn more about the relevant films during the martial law period, I would highly recommend the book Re-viewing Filipino Cinema by Bienvenido Lumbera, National Artist for Literature. I have not seen all the films during and about martial law. But, I remember those that I would highly recommend...Sister Stella L. was produced in 1984 when martial law was being publicly challenged on the streets of Metro Manila and all over the Philippines. I remember that when I watched it, I was surprised that Vilma Santos had accepted the role. She was then considered as the most glamorous star of Philippine cinema, and her role in Sister Stella L. was so different from her usual movie roles. Sister Stella Legaspi is a pacifist religious who is challenged by an older colleague and a concerned journalist to respond to the injustice being perpetrated on a group of factory workers. She leaves the convent to help the workers and to preach the teachings of Christ. She joins the workers in their picket line when they go on strike; and, she begins to identify with them. Then the workers’ leader is abducted, tortured and killed by para-military agents. Sister Stell L. and the journalist rally the workers and resolve to carry on the fight...There is no question that in today’s digital world, people – students, laborers, rich, poor – prefer film to reading books. Film has become the most powerful means of recreation; but, they can also be a means for education. Film may be the best medium to teach millennials and future generations about the true and unrevised version of Philippine history..." - Elfren S. Cruz, The Philippine Star, 24 September 2017 (READ MORE)

Guidance counselor siya sa mga taong may problema na tulad ni Gigi (Gina Alajar), isang unwed mother. Minsa’y dinalaw siya ni Nick Fajardo (Jay Ilagan), isang peryodistang dati niyang katipan. May sinusulat itong artikulo tungkol sa mga aktibistang pari at madre. Agad inamin ni Stella na siya’y “walang masyadong alam sa socio-political involvement ng mga madre at pari.” Siya ang ginawang ehemplo ni Nick sa artikulo nito ng mga madreng kulang sa kamulatan. Nag-react dito si Stella at sinabi sa kanya: “ Hindi ba involvement din ang trabaho ko rito sa Caritas?” Madalas ma-depress si Gigi at kay Stella ito sumasandal. Nang minsang sabihin sa kanya ni Stella na kaya niyang dalhin ang kanyang mga problema ay sinumbatan siya nito: “Madaling magsalita. Hindi naman ikaw ang nahihirapan. Paano mo alam, hindi ka naman dumaan sa hirap? Nagbuntis ka na ba? Laging masakit ang suso mo. Nahihirapan kang tumae.” At nang patuloy pa ring malamig si Stella ay sinabi nito: “Bakit hindi ka gumaya sa ‘kin? Nagagalit, nagmumura, nagpapabuntis?”

May kaibigang madre si Stella, si Sister Stella Bautista (Laurice Guillen). Involved ito sa social action work at kasalukuyang tumutulong sa Barrio Agoho, isang factory town, na kung saan ang mga manggagawa sa Republic Cooking Oil ay nagbabantang mag-aklas. Naakit si Stella L. na tingnan ang uri ng trabaho roon ni Stella B. Sa araw ng kanyang pagdalaw sa Agoho ay tiyempo namang pagsisimula ng welga roon. Tuwang-tuwa si Stella B. Sumasama raw siya sa picket line dahil “pag may mga madre at pari sa picket line, nahihiyang pumasok ang mga eskirol.” Sa paglapit niya sa picket ay naabutan si Stella L. ng placard at siya man ay napabilang na rin sa welga. Puno pa siya ng mga katanungan: “Ano ba ‘tong napasukan ko? Anong gagawin ko?” Sabi naman ni Stella B.: “Basta gawin mo lang ang gagawin ko.” Sa paglipas ng oras ay nakausap niya ang mga manggagawang nagwewelga, nakitulong siya sa pagsandok ng kanin, sa paghugas ng plato. Nakilala niya ang lider ng mga welgista na si Dencio (Tony Santos) at ang asawa nitong si Auring (Anita Linda).

Nang makita ni Nick ang mga larawang kuha sa welga at kabilang doon si Stella, nasabi nito sa kanyang editor (Liza Lorena): “Kilala ko si Stella. Madali siyang maimpluwensiyahan. Baka kung ano na ang napulot noon sa tokayo niyang radikal.” Nagsimula namang kuwestiyunin ni Stella ang trabaho niya sa Caritas. Binalaan siya ng kanyang superyorang si Juaning (Adul de Leon): “Hindi social action ang linya natin. At tandaan mo ang sabi ng Papa: huwag tayong humalo sa politika.” Sa kanyang mga alinlangan kung tama ang pasiya niyang maglingkod sa Agoho, ito ang payo ni Stella B.: “Paano mo malalaman kung hindi mo susubukan? Hindi ang mga tao ang dapat makinig sa ‘yo, ikaw ang dapat makinig sa kanila.” Dahil sa kanyang karanasan sa Agoho, nasabi ni Stella kay Gigi: “Ang kahirapang nababasa’t naririnig ko lamang ay naging buhay na sa akin. Ako pala’y nangangapa ring tulad mo.” Namulat ang mata niya sa “pang-aabuso sa mga naaapi” at na-touch siya ng “pag-aasikaso ng mga ito.” Aniya: “Sila na ang nangangailangan ay kami pa ang kanilang iniintindi.”

Duda pa rin si Nick sa involvement niya sa welga. Pasulpot-sulpot lang daw siya roon, patulong-tulong. “Kapag nagsawa ka,” anito, “uuwi ka rin sa komportableng kumbento.” Si Stella B. ay kinailangan namang magpunta sa Davao upang tumulong sa isa pa nilang kasamahan doon, lalong nangamba si Stella L. na iiwanan siya nito sa Agoho. “Baka hindi ko kaya,” aniya. Sabi naman ni Stella B. “Puro ka baka, e, kailan mo pa malalaman?” Pinatawag uli si Stella ni Juaning. Sabi nito: “Hindi payag ang kongregasyon sa trabaho mo sa Barrio Agoho.” Sa pagbabalik niya sa Caritas, nagpatiwakal naman si Gigi. Lalong naguluhan si Stella. “Parang bumaliktad ang mundo ko,” aniya. “Marami akong tinatanong. Bakit nga ba ako nag madre?” Sabi naman ni Stella B.: “Madreng lansangan ka pa rin hanggang mamatay ka.” Natuloy ang pag-alis nito, na ang akala’y pinoproblema niya na baka may pagtingin pa rin siya kay Nick. Bilin pa nito: “Kung mahal mo siya, sundin mong feeling mo. Marami namang paraan ngpaglilingkod sa Diyos.” Si Nick ay nagkaroon din ng problema sa trabaho niya. Isang artikulo niya tungkol sa karanasan ni Stella B. sa Isabela na pinamagatan niyang “A Nun’s Story: Military Atrocities” ang hindi pinalathala ng kanilang publisher. “I-rewrite mo,” sabi ng editor niya. “Bawasan mo’ng tapang.” “Ano?” balik niya. “Gawin kong love story?” “Sabi ko, i-rewrite mo, hindi babuyin,” anang editor. Pero sa bandang huli ay nag-give up na rin ito. Tanggapin na raw lamang ang kanilang mga limitasyon. “Hindi lahat ng legal ay makatarungan.” Nagbitiw si Nick sa trabaho niya sa Tribune at lumipat ng pagsusulat sa Malaya.

Nagbalik si Stella L. sa Agoho at naging mas aktibo na siya sa picket line. Nang minsang lalabas ang trak ng mga produkto mula sa pabrika ay siya pa ang nag wika: “Mga kasama, magkapit-bisig tayo.” Samantala’y nagsimula ang pangha-harass kay Dencio at sa pamilya nito. Una’y ginulpi ang anak niyang si Roger, pagkatapos ay binaril ang bahay nila. Ang huli’y kinidnap si Dencio. Nang papaalis na sina Stella at Nick upang humingi ng tulong, sila man ay kinidnap din. Nakita nila ang pagpapahirap kay Dencio. Sila man ay sinaktan din at si Stella ay binastos pa ng mga sanggano. Pinakawalan din sila. Di naglaon, ibinalik si Dencio. Patay na. Sa harap ng mga manggagawa, ipinahayag ng asawa nitong si Auring na tuloy ang welga. Nagsalita rin si Stella at sinabi niya: “Ilang beses akong pinaalalahanan na ako’y isang madre lamang. Pero una sa lahat, ako’y isang tao, ako’y isang Kristiyano.” At isinigaw niya: “Katarungan para kay Ka Dencio. Mabuhay ang uring manggagawa.” Sa last scene ng pelikula’y nagsasalita ng diretso si Stella L. sa mga manonood: “Marami pa akong hindi alam at dapat malaman tungkol sa kasalukuyang kalagayan ng ating sistema ng lipunan. Kailangan pa ‘kong patuloy na mag-aral at matuto. Pero ang mahalaga’y narito na ako ngayon, hindi na nanonood lamang. Nakikiisa sa pagdurusa ng mga di makaimik, tumutulong sa abot ng aking makakaya. Kung hindi tayo ang kikilos, sino ang kikilos? Kung hindi ngayon, kailan pa?”

More than anything else, ipinakita ni Mike de Leon bilang isang socially committed at responsible na director ang iba pang posibilidad ng pelikula bilang art at bilang medium of communication. ‘Yung mga laging pumipintas sa pelikulang lokal at nagsasabing walang kuwenta’t saysay ang mga ito, panoorin ninyo and “Sister Stella L” for it is Filipino moviemaking at its best: aware, concerned, and with a universally relevant message. It also shows that an artistic film can be entertaining and as a matter of fact, is necessarily intellectually entertaining (but an entertaining film is not necessarily an artistic one). The movie succeeds in delivering its message because all the elements that went into its completion are excellently executed. It is that rare kind of movie which has no false moves. The screenplay is brilliantly developed and constructed by Pete Lacaba, Jose Almojuela (who is also the assistant director), and Mike de Leon himself. The cinematography of Rody Lacap deserves nothing but superlatives and the musical score by Ding Achacoso is served in a silver platter (napakagaganda ng mga awiting “Sangandaan” at “Aling Pag-ibig Pa” na nilikha niya para sa pelikula). The editing by Jess Navarro and the production design by Cesar Hernando also deserve the highest commendation. We cannot help but gush dahil lahat ng aspeto ng produksiyong ito ay maganda.

The movie is sure to elicit all sorts of reactions from various quarters. The bigoted and the narrow-minded will no doubt readily brand it as the work of communists and subversives. The involved will merely find it interesting. But the enlightened will declare it as a socially committed work of art. No doubt that some concerned quarters will be offended. Some of the speeches are so frank and fearless. Dencio says in a May 1st rally: “Ang mga manggagawa ang lumilikha ng yaman ng bansa. Panahon na para ipakita ang lakas ng ating pagkakaisa, na makamtan ng bayan ang tunay na kalayaan. Ang manggagawa ang nagpapaandar ng makina, nagpapalago ng puhunan.” Pero ano ang nangyayari? Tayo ang namamatay sa gutom, ang naghihikahos. Hindi magbabago ang ating lipunan kung uupo lang tayo sa isang sulok at maghihimutok. kundi tayo ngayon kikilos, kailan pa?” Nang mamatay siya, sabi naman ng asawa niyang si Auring: “Noon, ang paniwala ko talaga, gano’n ang buhay, may nasa itaas, may nasa ibaba. May nag-uutos at may nagsisilbi. Pero kung tatahimik ka na lang lagi, ang konting meron ka, aagawin pa sa ‘yo. Patay na nga si Dencio pero tuloy ang welga.” Sabi naman ng anak niyang si Roger: “Kung kikilos tayo, dapat ngayon na. Ngayon pa lang, pinapatay na kami. Kaya mas mabuti pang mamatay ng lumalaban kaysa habang buhay kang nagtitiis.”

To make a film like this comes under the heading “they said it couldn’t be done.” Mike de Leon does it, splendidly. In these days when local film faces such problems as exorbitant production cost, commercialism, lack of an intelligent and responsive audience, and censorship, it is heartening to note that movies like this are still being made. Matthew Arnold said that art and society shape each other so artists should deal with serious subjects of moral and social value. This is exactly what Stella L. accomplished, for it allows the viewer to meditate on life and help him gain some insights. Surely no film is an island entire of itself because each movie is made by several men, but the distinguishable personality of an exceptional director is almost always imprinted on his film. We have never really liked the works of Mike de Leon that much and his movies (like “Itim”, “Kung Mangarap Ka’t Magising”, and “Kisapmata”) seemed nothing more to us as exercises in self-indulgence. Starting with “Kakaba-kaba Ka Ba?” though, he demonstrated a newfound cause in making movies, which is further reinforced by “Batch ‘81”. Now, Stella L., offers the pleasure of watching a director as he is hitting full stride, his craft and competence marching in step with history. His deft hand is quickly evident in the cinematography. There is no imposed prettiness in the photography, no straining for arty effects, but the texture is rich and palpable to validate reality, with the effective use of color-acting on the viewer to reinforce the temper and tenor of the story.

De Leon handles his intimate and delicate material powerfully, persuasively and penetratingly. He not only executes the technical aspects marvelously but also knows how to work with his actors, both individually and in the here all-important ensembles. The crowd scenes are a delight, with some sequences presented with the veristic quality of a documentary, and each scene is played for maximum impact, immaculately crafted and made with care and conscience, with dedication and devotion. If we now sound so much like an avid de Leon fan, it is because Stella L. is the kind of work that makes a reviewer long for new adjectives of praise. One knows very well that de Leon works for reasons other than money. This makes the strength, sensitivity and symetry of his direction deserve the highest praise and the sweet of music of thunderous applause for it is just better than perfect. Local cinema gives us very few occasions to rejoice and this is one of them. In the large and uniformly excellent supporting cast, Laurice Guillen stands out as Sister Stella B. She is one film director and actress who is really ablaze with talent. As the instrument to Stella L.’s involvement in a much more worthy cause, she imbuesher role with just the right mixture of intensity and charm. Equally memorable are Tony Santos as the beleaguered labor leader, Anita Linda as his courageous wife, and Liza Lorena as the sympathetic magazine editor who is willing to compromise. Gina Alajar is very effective in a very short role as the unwed mother. In the male lead role, Jay Ilagan proves once more that he is indeed one of our most competent young actors available.

And now, Vilma Santos. Playing the title role, Vilma tries a part that is totally different from her past roles and proves that she has indeed become a highly skilled professional. Her role is somewhat reminiscent of Audrey Hepburn’s in Fred Zinnermann’s “The Nun’s Story”, where a young nun discovers in a hospital at the Congo that she is first a nurse and only second a religious. But Stella’s awakening is much more vital and revolutionary than that of Sister Luke in the Hepburn movie. Vilma’s transformation from an innocent bystander to that of an active participant who is audacious enough to be in the thick of battle is truly quite awesome to behold. We could almost see and feel the internal changes in her. In a sense, the role is somewhat tailor made for her because her beauty is appropriate to the part of Stella L., but she also succeeds in transcending her established personality, delivering her lines and gestures with vigorous conviction and playing it to perfection that one can safely predict that she will again be running in the best actress derby come next year. And so, to Vi, Mike and Mother Lily, our heartfelt gratitude for giving us a film that has the power to cause insomnia. - Mario E. Bautista

Must the ability to entertain the audience be the constant guiding criteria in the film and in the performing arts? While certainly, one does not minimize the importance of the entertainment function of the arts, the film Sister Stella L shows that it is not much the ability to entertain that is crucial as the ability to stir and maintain interest. For, as in this film, one cannot really say that the audience is entertained, regaled with spectacular sights, provided a pleasant diversion or titillated by teasing or amusing scenes, but the audience is invited, through the skills of the performers and director, to engage in immediate issues which concern us today. This film thus poses a challenge to our usual notions and expectations of Philippine cinema, as it is not a romantic or domestic drama, a comedy or an action film. The fact that such a film as this appears at this point implies a belief in the development and maturity of the local audience who can, at least from the responses of previewers so far, be receptive to harder stuff.

Sister Stella L deals with the contemporary social issues through the experience of various characters, among them Sister Stella L (Vilma Santos) and Nick, her former boyfriend now a journalist (Jay Ilagan), Sister Stella B (Laurice Guillen), the union leader Ka Dencio (Tony Santos) and his wife (Anita Linda). Again, the film differs from most productions nowadays in its immersion in contemporary social reality. The characters, too, possess a strong active aspect of people engaged in a meaningful cause, the people’s struggle for social justice. The nun that Sister Stella B portrays typifies in her strength and honesty the person who has gone beyond purely personal and selfish concerns to embrace the larger role of service to the people. No doubt, it is a refreshing and exhilarating experience to see characters who realize themselves fully as human beings by transcending petty selfish interest and giving of themselves to people in need of support and protection. Because of this, the spirit of the film is highly optimistic and reassuring because it makes us strongly aware of the forces in our midst working for change and of the fact that history is moving forward with these forces assuming the active role.

The central issue of the film has to do with the involvement of religious like Sister Stella L and her senior, Sister Stella B, in socio-political affairs. We know, for instance, that one point of view will have priests and religious secluded behind convent walls where their activity is restricted to praying. They are to have nothing to do with life around them as social and political concerns are thought to corrupt their purity and bring in wordly moral dangers and temptations. Or that priests and religious should remain apolitical, not taking sides in socio-political issues, but as men of God, considering all men as brothers who will, in the end, become docile and receptive to preachings of love and unity. The other point of view believes that it is not as simplistic as all that. In fact, it believes that the adoption of a neutral attitude can only serve to dull one’s moral sensibilities and because one shirks from making moral choices, one also renouces one’s responsibility as a human being. In truth, it is of utmost importance, perhaps particularly so for religious, to have a fine and acute sense of moral discernment as applied to social relations, in which the idea of truth and justice operate. The religious who makes grand sermons on love and unity may not himself understand the meaning of truth and justice, because love and unity do not exist in the abstract but are social ideals possible of attainment - only and only when exploitative relationships are destroyed. Otherwise, one contents oneself with hypocrisies.

What for instance, would be the love of the rich factory owner intent on profits for the worker, and vise versa. Workers’ wages are only to keep workers alive and in a measure of health for him to have enough strength to operate the machines of work in the fields. Is it enough for factory owner and worker to meet in church and perhaps occupy the same pew - or will religious feel sufficiently edified at the sight? But priests and nuns are citizens of this country as much as any of us and are thus part of the body politic in which they have the right to take active part. Likewise, they are as human as anyone else, and as human beings, they have the drive toward concreteness and totality realized only in social interaction. The Church, too, cannot afford to take a position of alienation and withdrawal, because by doing so it will only continually lose its influence in a time of urgent and pressing realities; otherwise, it will only end up as an outmoded medieval institution. The Church is continually called upon to make moral decisions, and it is through these that the people will know whether it truly supports their cause or whether it only acts as a liaison for exploitative interests.

In the film, for instance, there is a conflict between Sister Stella L and her superior who wants her to stay in the convent to act as guidance counsellor and not to engage in labor activities in Barrio Agoho where a strike in an oil factory is taking place. For a while, she obeys her superior to be spiritual adviser to an unwed mother, portrayed by Gina Alajar, who, however, throws her back the question of what does she know at all, as a nun, of human suffering. The task of counselling this individual soul lost in her private hell is fruitless and Gina eventually commits suicide, which serves to show the nun the narrow limitation of such a task. Sister Stella L henceforth knows that she must make the choice of the larger and more challenging field of the workers in struggle. It is also important to note that Sister Stella B tells her fellow nun that although her immediate superior may not approve of her social participation, it is possible that higher superiors will - thus showing that such is still possible within the fold of the congregation. Also, at one time, there arises the question of whether Sister Stella L will stick it out as a religious or continue her activities outside the convent. Upon consultation with her friend, Sister Stella B, she decides to carry on the struggle as a nun, and by so doing, show the importance of such a function for her fellow religious, as well as its validity as a position within the religious orders.

The central event in the film is the strike of workers in an oil factory in Barrio Agoho where nuns show their support for the workers by participating in the picket, thereby lending valuable protection. The factory owner (Ruben Rustia) sends goons to harass the picket line, and makes use of the military, which readily lends itself to protect the minority interests of wealthy property owners against the majority interests of the workers. When the strike continues despite inclement weather and hunger, the factory owner resorts to kidnapping the union leader, Sister Stella L, and her journalist friend. All are maltreated and tortured, but the old union leader is finally “salvaged” and thrown into a dump. In the confrontation between the factory owner and Sister Stella L, the former shows himself to be hostile to the workers and to the participation of the nuns: “Kung pati ang mga madre ay nagpapagamit sa mga Komunista, mabuti pang magbago na lang ako ng relihiyon.” To which the nun answers: “Mabuti na ngang magbago kayo ng relihiyon upang hindi parehong Diyos ang sambahin natin.” The murder of the union leader, Ka Dencio, only lends more fuel to the workers’ resolve to continue the strike, which is now led by his wife, with the militant participation of Sister Stella L. The latter’s exhortation to the workers - and by extension to the audience - to engage in the struggle ends the film.

A secondary theme is the issue of press freedom, which is explored, in the first-hand experience of Nick, the young journalist. He writes a series on the politicization of the religious and their active participation in mass actions. In the beginning, his motivations are somewhat confused - and this his editor points out clearly to him - because he may be using this as an excuse to follow and communicate with Sister Stella L, who used to be his girlfriend. The journalist, however, understands the futility of the religious confining themselves within convent walls and poses the challenge for involvement. Sister Stella L takes up the challenge - in fact, the journalist’s articles contribute to her politicization. When she gets more and more involved, he becomes protective and anxious for her safety. His articles on the subject barely squeeze through censorship and he experiences increasing difficulty in getting published. Sister Stella L and he are kidnapped by goons and they are physically assaulted even as they witness the torture of the union leader. Instead of intimidating them, the experience completes their politicization and in the end Sister Stella, militant and committed, finds her true social role.

Because this movie deals with issues, it has more than the usual amount of dialogue compared with other films. This, however, does not work against it. Since what is talked about is drawn from the very stuff of social reality and thus concerns a large number, it is able to sustain interest. Too much dialogue would be a defect if it dwelt on banalities or inanities or if it narrated incidents rather than portrayed them. In this case, dialogue is necessary for the exploration of issues, as well as for the portrayal of how the characters reckon with ideas and develop in their social consciousness. The audience is not bored provided the things talked about in the film have a bearing on their lives. Filipinos, after all, are a talky lot (think of the large amounts of time spent in coffee shops over coffee or beer). Moreover, these are talky times, because the larger public is rapidly developing critical awareness, and there is now a greater need for interaction and exchange in the interest of survival. There are references in the film which may, at first, seem extraneous, such as Sister Stella B’s mission to Davao where she joins a fact-finding group.

However, such references serve to extend the “area of responsibility,” if we may borrow the expression, from Manila to the far-flung provinces. Thus, the unity of the film is not only in the events that engage the characters in Manila but also in a larger over-all spirit of solidarity in which vibrations of sympathy throughout the islands give strength and comfort to those of a common cause. For a heart-warming film, the entire cast deserves congratulations, particularly Vilma Santos who reveals another aspect of her multi-faceted talent. From her usual soft and sweet romantic roles, she can be transformed into a strong and militant woman without losing any of her charm and beauty. Jay Ilagan, Tony Santos, Anita Linda and Liza Lorena are also in their best form. Mike de Leon as director, Jose F. Lacaba as scriptwriter are likewise to be congratulated for making a truly human film and for contributing to the cause of workers for justice and of the religious for the recognition of their social role. Not to be overlooked is the producer Lily Monteverde of Regal Films who has this time shifted from puerile erotic dramas to make a courageous film for which she will always be well remembered. - Alice G. Guillermo, Who Magazine, 30 May 1984

There would have been two important Filipino films in this year’s prestigious Cannes Film Festival: Sister Stella L., directed by Mike de Leon and Kapit sa Patalim, directed by Lino Brocka. Both smuggled out to France and both vitally political in thrust, the two films were reportedly disowned by the Philippine embassy in France. Supposedly under instructions from the Philippine goverment, the embassy sent the following disclaimer to the festival directorate: “There are no Filipino films in the Cannes Film Festival.” The two films nevertheless made it to the festival site, though only one was screened as scheduled. Brocka’s film was in the category “In Competition,” and was tested against the works of such eminent directors as Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and Satyajit Ray. Early on, Kapit sa Patalim (which acquired a second title, Bayan Ko, in deference to another film project which had been approved before Brocka’s project) was rumored to be a strong contender for the Best Film award. Critic Bertrand Tavernier was quoted as saying, “It’s a toss-up between Wim Wenders’ Paris Texas and Brockas’s Bayan Ko.” De Leon’s film was to have had special screenings, on the unanimous request of the Cannes’ board of critics. Sister Stella L., however, suffered from the rush of subtitling work that descended upon Cannes’ select group of translators and De Leon opted not to show the film without subtitles. He nevertheless had the distinct honor of holding a retrospective under the sponsorship of the French Cinematheque right after the festival. The film eventually competed at the Venice Film Festival. Under its original title Sangandaan (Crossroads), Sister Stella L. was invited to the Venice Film Festival in 1984, the second Filipino film (after Genghis Khan in 1951) to be honored with such recognition. - Agustin L. Sotto and Pet Cleto, Philippine Panorama - 02 December 1984

"...Enigmatic director Mike de Leon has always been known as a risk taker. He pushed for 'Itim' as title of his debut film. The film might have ended a flop at the Metro Manila Film Festival but it is still a stunning first film. He also questioned martial law rule in Batch ’81. It was no surprise then that he would pursue a more political film after the assassination of Ninoy Aquino. But, the stars must be aligned too. The murder of Ninoy led to mass protests and a more relaxed censorship atmosphere. Mother Lily bravely took the option of producing Sister Stella L. Meanwhile, Vilma Santos was tired of portraying liberated women. She fought for the role of an activist nun. She begged Mother Lily to give her the role. The original script by Pete Lacaba was voluminous. He excused himself with the pruning of the script because he was then working on Bayan Ko: Kapit sa Patalim. De Leon and Jose Almojuela did the job of shortening the script. Ellen Ongkeko added some dialogues. Lacaba noted during the 2008 Active Vista Film Festival that de Leon found the Vilma film dated. The reclusive director preferred the showing of the magnificent documentary film Signos in lieu of Sister Stella L. While the former may have more bite, the Vilma starrer is still a highly relevant film and a true classic..." - 1505 Film Avenue (READ MORE)

"...But 25 years later, Vilma's film is still the talk of the town and is rightly recognized as one of the best Filipino films of the 20th century. Roland Tolentino enumerated the three major reasons why the film is a gem of Philippine cinema. He noted the excellent acting by Vilma and the rest of the cast. Laurice Guillen remarked that she had to let go of her stage mannerisms in order to properly portray a nun. It remains a milestone in her acting career. A somewhat embarrassed Vilma admitted that she was clueless on the film’s message during the course of the shooting. Tolentino also highlighted the social realism of the film. Labor problems, persecution of media, and harassment of nuns were effectively portrayed in the film. A forum listener, Sister Rosario Battung, confirmed that her colleagues were stalked by military men during the Marcos regime. They were being harassed by the police and soldiers. A Kilusang Mayo Uno member said the film was always one of the films viewed at picket lines. Pete Lacaba butted in to say that hopefully the DVD copy was an original one. He also noted that media persecution got worse during the administration of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Radio commentators and print journalists were being killed..." - Film Angel (READ MORE)

"...In the 70s, a period characterized by the emergence of a new breed of filmmakers, we witnessed the renascence of a new Philippine cinema. Through their ouevre, there were conscious attempts to examine signigficant Filipino experience. These films, imbued with the sensibility, of their creators, form part of our film legacy. These films, chosen by the critics as the best films of the decade, are Ishmael Bernal's Nunal sa Tubig and Pagdating sa Dulo, Lino Brocka's Maynila...Sa Mga Kuko ng Liwanag, Insiang and Jaguar, Mike de Leon's Itim, and Eddie Romero's Ganito Kami Noon, Paano Kayo Ngayon? As we journey toward the end of a new decade, the list of the best Filipino films will become longer and will have to include those made by these directors and a number of new ones, too. To this list, I would include Bernal's Manila by Night, Mike de Leon's Sister Stella L., Pegue Gallaga's Oro, Plata, Mata, and Laurice Guillen's Salome. These are the films I would proudly and justifiably call Filipino - films that are as much a source of genuine pleasure as a cause of great expectations in the future of Philippine cinema." - Justino Dormiendo, Manila Standard, Apr 7, 1987 (READ MORE)

Justice to Ka Dencio, Kuala - "...Filipino activists gave justice to slain labor leader Ka Dencio (played by the late Tony Santos Sr.), one of the main characters in the movie Sister Stella L produced by Regal Films and directed by Mike de Leon. It was the fourth best film among our activist respondents, citing Lily Monteverde's film 13 times. The film about an activist nun played by Vilma Santos was shown in 1984, two years before the first Edsa uprising. It was inspired by the people's fight against the US-backed Marcos dictatorship with the labor front as its political backdrop in denouncing the fascist rule. Amy Dural of the Promotion of Church for People's Response (PCPR) says Sister Stella L should be cited for its clear depiction of the struggle of workers against the exploiting capitalist class and the Church peoples' involvement in this fight for class emancipation. "I gave this film a two-thumbs up for its courageous stand on the issue of labor, state fascism and its rallying call for Church people to absorb the workers' fight for a just and humane society in flesh and in spirit," says Dural. Brocka's Tinimbang Ka Ngunit Kulang tied with Sister Stella L in the fourth spot. "If Ka Dencio was given justice, the same was done to Kuala played superbly by seasoned actress Lolita Rodriguez who was abandoned by a rich playboy acted by Eddie Garcia," says a former UP student and now staff of the peasant group Kilusang Magbubukid ng Pilipinas (KMP)..." - Gerry Albert-Corpuz, Bulatlat (READ MORE)

The Ten Best Filipino Films of the Decade - "...The films which appear in this list were selected because the filmmakers who created them have chosen to break popular conventions, when the industry decrees otherwise. They have courageously attempted to treat Philippine cinema not only as an art form but also as a vehicle for hard-core social criticism. They have done this despite the threat of censorship. They are listed below according to year...Sister Stella L.(1984) - Winner of 10 Urian awards, this Mike de Leon film is the most celebrated work to emerge at a time when Filipinos where furious (yellow). This landmark film about labor unrest effectively captures the anger that gripped the country after the murder of Ninoy Aquino. Vilma Santos gives a memorable performance in the title role..." - Emmanuel Reyes, Manila Times, 1990 (READ MORE)

Media Repression - "...The Filipino film has shown an entire society working together and moving in concert to attain dreams the people hold in common. It has also shown itself capable of great intimacy, allowing us to witness an individual's joy and pain and involving us in the workings of a particular character's heart and mind. Sister Stella L., 1984, by Mike de Leon, made during the period when the Philippines was under the Marcos dictatorship, tells the story of a nun who witnesses actual cases of human rights violations committed against workers striking for better wages, and finds herself shedding personal problems and fears to commit herself to the struggle of the oppressed against those who wield power unjustly in our society...The martial law years under President Ferdinand Marcos were a period of media repression that saw radio, television, komiks and film kept under constant survillance with the collaboration of media owners and practitioners as well. Nevertheless, some filmmakers were not daunted by the state's veiled terrorism. Realities the martial law government wanted to gloss over or conceal appeared in various guises in a number of feature films, such as Hubad na Bayani (The Barechested Hero, 1977, about a peasant revolt), Sakada (Sugar Workers, 1976, about unrest among sugar workers), Batch '81 (1982, an allegory about fascism), Manila by Night/City after Dark (1980, about the seamy side of Imelda Marcos' "City of Man"), Minsa'y Isang Gamugamo (Sometimes a Winged Ant, 1976, an exposure of ill effects of U.S. bases), Broken Marriage (1983, touching on media repression), Bayan Ko: Kapit sa Patalim (1984, touching on the repression of worker's rights) and Sister Stella L. (1984, on media repression and violence against striking workers..." - Bienvenido L. Lumbera, Pelikula - An Essay on Philippine Film (READ MORE)

Film Criticism - "...Early days of Manunuri, ang palagi kong binabasa ay ang reviews ni Jun Cruz Reyes. Jun Cruz' movie reviews were shaped up by the existing social injustices. Unlike most of the Manunuris na kadalasan, ang kanilang reviews reeked of the formalist tradition of the academe. You can't read Jun Cruz these days, but I make it a point to read a Mario Bautista review in this mag. I noticed Mario has gone beyond the formalist approach. In Soltero, Mario deplores the fact na ang boredom ng middle-class ay iba sa boredom ng masa - 'yung Pinoy whose basic problem is how to make both ends meet. Which is true. Mario did the same in his review of Sister Stella L, which I would call the movie of the decade, if not the height of Philippine cinema. I'm always partial to movie reviewers and artists as well whose hearts and eyes are with the masses. Kasi nga, given two equally well-crafted movies, to judge say Soltero or Sister Stella L., ang reviewer na walang social consciousness would have second thoughts of giving the highest award to Sister Stella L. Film criticism, as we know do change with the temperaments of a particualar time and milieu. Pati ang kosepto ng magandang pelikula must change. Kung nasa Third World country ka, kailangang may pagbabago ang batayan mo ng isang magandang pelikula dahil sa limitations. Kung nasa First World country ka naman, s'yempre iba rin ang pamantayan. Puwedeng gamiting pamantayan ang elitist view of art na pa-universal-universal-kuno. Naniniwala ako an art must serve to humanize the conditions of the sorry lot, and not just the conditions of the few elitist groups. After all, art and its greater number of poeole ought to shape each other. Ano'ng pakialam ng mga nagugutom na Pinoy sa boredom ni Jay Ilagan sa pelikulang Soltero? Mas nakaka-identify pa siguro sila sa exploitation theme ng Sister Stella L. kaysa Soltero, di ba? All other factors being equal, sa dalawang movies na ito, I guess those who cannot go beyond the chains of formalist approach to reviewing will take Soltero anytime, pero for those whose orientation is one of social concern, Sister Stella L. would be their kind of movie, Ang tanong, kailan naman kaya mapapanood ng masa ang Sister Stella L.? These days of sheer elitism, we need reviewers like Mario Bautista. Napuna n'yo ba, na wala nang ginawa ang vanguards of Philippine Cinema kundi, hala, magbigayan ng awards taun-taon. Wala silang paki sa mga masang Pinoy na naglulupasay sa kahirapan. As if they make movies para lang magkaroon sila ng elitistang seremonya year in and year out. Pag magkakagulo na ang Pilipinas katulad ng nangyari sa Nicaragua, siguro, 'yon na. Magigising na tayo sa kahibangan ng mga pa-award-award blues natin. Meantime, let's enjoy the circus of showbiz. Magpakahilo at magpakabaliw tayo like what Nero did amidst the burning Rome. The signs of bad times are coming. When that time comes, we must know which side of the fence to take para hindi tayo magmukhang daga na bumabahag ang buntot. 'Yong lang at 'yon na..." - BCMatignas, Movie Flash Magazine, 14 June 1984 (READ MORE)

Stella in Venice - "...We were quite hesitant at first to ask her...kung tutuong and Sister Stella ay hindi kumita na tulad ng inaasahan. "I was told by Mother Lily na kumita naman daw pero siyempre I still feel disappointed because of high expectations nga ng lahat ng tao...Pero nuong una pa, marami sa aking nagsasabi na baka hindi raw kikita dahil seryosong masyado 'yung pelikula...Sa ngayon ngaý ipinadala ang pelikula sa Venice Film Festival na ginaganap ngayon. Nagpunta roon si Mike de Leon bilang kinatawanan ng pelikula at ng bansa at gusto ni Mother Lily na sumama na rin si Vi sa delegasyon roon. "Pero imposible nga akong umalis dahil sa commitment ko sa Baby Tsina, lalo na malapit nang matapos ang shooting namin." At ang pelikula niyang Relasyon ay nakatakdang ilahok sa isang pestibal na gaganapin sa Jakarta next week...Again, Vi is not sure whether she can attend even if she really wanted to..." - Mario E. Bautista, Movie Flash, 1984

"...Biglang lumawak ang daigdig ng isang madre nang mamulat ang kanyang mata sa tunay na daloy ng buhay sa mga manggagawang nagwewelga. Mapuwersa ang istoryang ito ukol sa pag-aalsa ng maliliit laban sa kapitalista at kung paano masangkot sa kanila ang isang madreng datiý kuntento na sa kanyang dating gawaing itinalaga lamang ng kanilang kongregasyon. Tunay na nakaaantig damdamin ang Sister Stella L at ang teknikal na bahagi nito ay totoong mataas na uri, pati na ang pagbibigay buhay na mga artista sa kani-kanilang mga papel...Sa pelikulang Sister Stell L napanagumpayan ni Mike de Leon na ipakita ang mga tunggaliang namamahay sa damdamin at isipan ng isang alagad ng Diyos sa katauhan ng isang madreng napagitna sa isang marahas na kapaligiran. Makatotohanan ang tunggali ng ipinakita ng pelikula, tunggaliang higit na mas malawak, ang tunggalian ng manggagawa at ng kapitalista...Kasabay ng kanyang pag-alsa bilang reyna ng takilya (si Vilma Santos), ay ang nakakakumbinse niyang pagganap sa no mang tauhang binibigyan niya ng buhay sa sinema. Sa hanay ng mga pelikulang ginawa niya sa nakaraang taon, namumukod ang kinang niyang iyon sa "Sister Stella L," kung saan siya gumanap bilang isang simpleng madre na unti-unting nagising sa dahas ng isang mapang-uring lipunan, at sa "Adultery," kung saan siya naging biktima ng isang materyalistikong kapaligiran..." - Star Awards 1984

  
 



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